Some countries of Central America have reached a high percentage of renewable matrix, they have started projects taking advantage of the capacity at their production plants carrying better prices to the final consumer.
Making a tour of the countries of Central American it shows that these countries are rich in natural resources. These resources are used by the central American countries as renewable sources of electricity in a different way.
In Guatemala there is a historic decline in the prices of power energy supply.
The transformations achieved are a product of the certainty that the legal framework has given to investors.
The energy produced by water or hydric resources is the one that offers greater potential in the country, being Guatemala a country very rich in hydric resources.
It is worth to mention that the national commission on electric power of Guatemala launched different tenders for the expansion plan of power generation (PEG-1, PEG-2 and PEG-3) seeking to diversify the composition of the energy matrix, giving priority to the development of projects with renewable energy by promoting investment in power generation efficient enough to reduce the costs of supplying energy.
In El Salvador, the strength of the power-generating companies is focused in the geothermal resources. The country has several areas where the heat of the soil has been exploited for the production of energy. Some projects to highlight is the second photovoltaic plant for sufficiency of the legislative assembly which will feed the internal network providing is corresponding to the 8% of the total energy. There are also two projects to be developed based in solar and wind resources.
In Honduras the renewable sources exploited so far are water, solar and wind having invested heavily in the construction of 18 hydroelectric projects, 31 which are in stage of operation and others which are in study. Examples of these projects stand out in the park of Nacaome Valle and one of the largest photovoltaic projects in Latin America which is located in Embtelladora Sula, a company of the north of Honduras.
In Nicaragua, there is a considerable investment in the pursuit of changing the energy matrix by decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels with renewable energy, mainly through investment In wind projects.
According to official data, in May 21 2015 the installed capacity of Nicaragua covered 66% of thermal generation 13% geothermal a 2.4 % biomass and a 7.1 % of hydro. The array of non-renewable energy is a 60.7 % and the renewable at a 39.3 %
Valuable examples can be mentioned such as projects of geothermal in Casitas San Cristobal with 3 stages generating energy from biomass; by 2018 the Tumarin hydroelectric project will begin operations and it is expected that a considerable amount of renewable energy will be generated in the country.
In Costa Rica, the electricity has been achieved by using clean energy, which means not generating or issuing pollution to the atmosphere or producing greenhouse gases but contributing to mitigate the effects of climate change. The country stands apart in Central America as a leader in clean energy by owning an energy matrix based largely on hydroelectricity and which aspires to rely on renewable sources by 2021.
Regarding Panama the renewable energy generated consists of 57% of what the country requires. However, several projects have set an alarm in the Canal Zone, indigenous groups and marginalized populations who are protesting the execution of projects which they deem to be a threat to their quality of life and environment.
In Panama the largest wind farm in Central America was open which has completed three of four stages; the greater part of the clean energy is conformed of hydroelectric plants with 71 operative plants and located in the western part of the Panamanian region, where the rivers of the isthmus are.
In the Dominican Republic, the development of renewable sources of energy was driven by the creation of a law which the State undertook to prioritize this kind of electricity by means of tax exemptions and guarantee savings on the electricity bill to those who placed investments in solar and wind projects.
This incentive was an objective to get out of the precarious situation in which the energy service was by regulating the sector.
However regarding the coal plant although there are positions that contend that the State is sovereign to invest what is necessary other sources indicate that it would have been possible to evaluate other alternatives for greater sustainability because even though the cost of coal is less, they will have difficulties to the extent that the world is progressing toward forms of more stringent environmental protection.
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